Free Drinking Fountains in Berkley, Ca

In February 2014, a levy on sugar-sweetened beverages was approved in Berkley, CA, making it the first city in the United States to create such a regulation. By making soda more costly, it’s hoped that individuals will make better choices for what their children drink, like water as an example. Research was executed to find out the reputation of local drinking water fountains and whether people from other racial or economical backgrounds had less availability to them. Information on the city’s drinking water fountains were developed using a GPS created specifically for the research. 50021sl__63544.jpg The US Census Community Study database was used to collect information pertaining to race and economic status in these areas. By cross-referencing the water fountain locations with the demographic data, they were in a position to ascertain whether access to working fountains was class reliant. Each water fountain and the demographics of its nearby area were studied to reveal whether the location of the fountains or their standard of maintenance revealed any connection to income, race, or other points. The cleanliness of many fountains was found lacking, even if most were functioning.

Contemporary Garden Decoration: Garden Fountains and their Beginnings

A fountain, an amazing piece of engineering, not only supplies drinking water as it pours into a basin, it can also propel water high into the air for an extraordinary effect.

The primary purpose of a fountain was originally strictly practical. Water fountains were linked to a spring or aqueduct to provide potable water as well as bathing water for cities, townships and villages. Until the late nineteenth, century most water fountains functioned using the force of gravity to allow water to flow or jet into the air, therefore, they needed a supply of water such as a reservoir or aqueduct located higher than the fountain. Designers thought of fountains as amazing additions to a living space, however, the fountains also served to provide clean water and honor the designer responsible for building it. Animals or heroes made of bronze or stone masks were often times utilized by Romans to decorate their fountains. During the Middle Ages, Muslim and Moorish garden planners included fountains to create mini variations of the gardens of paradise. Fountains played a considerable role in the Gardens of Versailles, all part of French King Louis XIV’s desire to exert his power over nature. To mark the entryway of the restored Roman aqueducts, the Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries commissioned the construction of baroque style fountains in the spot where the aqueducts entered the city of Rome

The end of the nineteenth century saw the increase in usage of indoor plumbing to supply drinking water, so urban fountains were relegated to strictly decorative elements. Fountains using mechanical pumps instead of gravity helped fountains to provide recycled water into living spaces as well as create unique water effects.

Modern fountains are used to adorn public spaces, honor individuals or events, and enhance recreational and entertainment events.

Water Transport Strategies in Ancient Rome

Aqua Anio Vetus, the first raised aqueduct built in Rome, started off providing the individuals living in the hills with water in 273 BC, though they had counted on natural springs up until then. When aqueducts or springs weren’t available, people living at higher elevations turned to water pulled from underground or rainwater, which was made available by wells and cisterns. To furnish water to Pincian Hill in the early sixteenth century, they applied the new strategy of redirecting the motion from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground network. As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. Whilst these manholes were created to make it much easier to conserve the aqueduct, it was also feasible to use buckets to remove water from the channel, which was done by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he obtained the property in 1543 to his passing in 1552. He didn’t get a sufficient quantity of water from the cistern that he had constructed on his residential property to collect rainwater. Thankfully, the aqueduct sat directly below his residence, and he had a shaft established to give him accessibility.

Cultural Statues in Early Greece

Historically, the vast majority of sculptors were compensated by the temples to embellish the involved columns and archways with renderings of the gods, but as the period came to a close it grew to be more accepted for sculptors to portray regular people as well simply because many Greeks had begun to think of their institution as superstitious rather than sacred. Portraiture, which would be accepted by the Romans upon their annexation of Greek society became traditional as well, and thriving family members would often commission a portrayal of their forebears to be placed in immense familial tombs. A time of artistic development, the use of sculpture and other art forms morphed during the Greek Classical period, so it is not entirely accurate to suggest that the arts provided only one function. Greek sculpture is probably enticing to us all at present as it was an avant-garde experiment in the ancient world, so it doesn't make a difference whether or not its original purpose was religious zeal or artistic enjoyment.

The Distribution of Garden Water Fountains Manufacturing Knowledge in Europe

Throughout the European countries, the primary means of spreading practical hydraulic understanding and fountain design ideas were the circulated pamphlets and illustrated books of the time, which added to the development of scientific development. An unnamed French water feature designer came to be an internationally renowned hydraulic leader in the late 1500's. By developing landscapes and grottoes with incorporated and clever water attributes, he started off his occupation in Italy by receiving imperial mandates in Brussels, London and Germany. “The Principles of Moving Forces”, a guide which turned into the fundamental text on hydraulic mechanics and engineering, was composed by him towards the end of his life in France. Classical antiquity hydraulic breakthroughs were outlined as well as revisions to crucial classical antiquity hydraulic discoveries in the publication. Archimedes, the creator of the water screw, had his work featured and these included a mechanical way to move water. Sunlight warmed the water in two concealed vessels next to the beautiful fountain were displayed in an illustration. The end result: the water feature is activated by the heated water expanding and ascending up the pipes.

Yard ponds as well as pumps, water wheels, and water feature designs are talked about in the book.

A Genuine Roman Marvel: The Santa Maria Water Fountain in Cosmedin

Both Christian and pagan relics have been found in large quantities by archaeologists and restorers searching the area of the Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome. The Bocca della Verità (Mouth of Truth} is a famed marble sculpture found in the portico of the nearby basilica. Due to the fact that the Santa Maria in Cosmedin fountain (1719) was situated off the beaten track, it remained relatively obscure. It was said that there was nothing worth seeing in this area because it was abject and desolate making it an unfriendly place to visit. As part of an effort to modernize the piazza outside the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, the Italian architect Carlo Bizzaccheri was instructed by Pope Clement XI to design a fountain. The job of laying down the church’s foundation started on August 17, 1717. Medals bearing the imagery of the Blessed Virgin, for whom the church is named, and of St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of water, were thrown in the foundation following the blessing of the first stone.

The Original Public Water Fountains

The water from creeks and other sources was originally delivered to the residents of nearby towns and cities via water fountains, whose purpose was primarily practical, not aesthetic. In the days before electricity, the spray of fountains was powered by gravity exclusively, usually using an aqueduct or water resource located far away in the surrounding hills. The splendor and wonder of fountains make them perfect for traditional memorials. Rough in design, the very first water fountains did not look much like contemporary fountains. A natural stone basin, crafted from rock, was the first fountain, used for holding water for drinking and ceremonial purposes. 2000 BC is when the oldest identified stone fountain basins were used. Early fountains put to use in ancient civilizations depended on gravity to regulate the circulation of water through the fountain. Drinking water was provided by public fountains, long before fountains became elaborate public statues, as striking as they are practical. Fountains with ornate decoration began to appear in Rome in about 6 BC, commonly gods and creatures, made with stone or bronze. The people of Rome had an intricate system of aqueducts that supplied the water for the numerous fountains that were located throughout the community.


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