Rome’s Ingenious Water Transport Systems

50024plbz__07215.jpg Aqua Anio Vetus, the first raised aqueduct assembled in Rome, started supplying the many people living in the hills with water in 273 BC, even though they had counted on natural springs up till then. When aqueducts or springs weren’t accessible, people dwelling at raised elevations turned to water removed from underground or rainwater, which was made available by wells and cisterns. In the early 16th century, the city began to use the water that ran beneath the earth through Acqua Vergine to deliver drinking water to Pincian Hill. Pozzi, or manholes, were made at regular stretches along the aqueduct’s channel. The manholes made it more straightforward to maintain the channel, but it was also achievable to use buckets to remove water from the aqueduct, as we discovered with Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi when he possessed the property from 1543 to 1552, the year he died. The cistern he had constructed to obtain rainwater wasn’t sufficient to meet his water demands. That is when he made the decision to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran directly below his property.

Where are the World’s Most Impressive Water Displays?

Known as the King Fahd Fountain (1985) located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, it is the highest continuously operating fountain in the world. Reaching incredible heights above the Red Sea, this fountain propels water 260 meters (853 feet) in the air.

Coming in second is the World Cup Fountain located in the Han-Gang River in Seoul, Korea (2002) with water blasting 202 meters (663 feet).

The Gateway Geyser (1995) found next to the Mississippi River in St. Louis, Missouri is number three on the list. With water reaching 192 meters (630 feet) in the air, this water fountain is the tallest in the U.S..

The next on the list is Port Fountain located in Karachi, Pakistan which shoots water 190 meters (620 feet) into the heavens.

Number 4: Fountain Park (1970), Fountain Hills, Arizona - although it can reach heights of 171 meters (561 feet) when all three pumps are in use, it only reaches 91 meters (300 feet) on a normal day.

The Dubai Fountain which made its debut in 2009 is located next to highest building worldwide, the famous Burj Khalifa. The fountain shoots water up to 73 meters (240 feet) and performs once every half hour to pre-recorded music - and even has extreme shooters, not used in every show, which reach up to 150 meters (490 feet).

Number 7 is the Captain James Cook Memorial Jet in Canberra, completed in 1970, launching water 147 meters (482 feet) high.

And finally we have the Jet d'eau, in Geneva (1951) which measures 140 meters (460 feet) in height.

Suggestions for Your Perfect Spot Inside or Outdoors

One good way to create a tranquil and serene area is to put in a feng shui fountain. A garden or home waterfall is the perfect solution. It is a wonderful complement to the decoration of any home. Be sure to position your outdoor fountain so that it is noticeable from inside in order to get the most out of it.

The most attractive water fountains incorporate flowers and plants. Select plants that keep their loveliness year-round. Your fountain can be made even more personal by including items like statues or other artwork, picturesque shells, etc.

Chatsworth Gardens and its "Revelation" Water Display

Angela Conner, the widely known British sculptor, designed “Revelation,” the latest acquisition to the decorative exterior fountains of Chatsworth. The now deceased 11th Duke of Devonshire commissioned her, because of her work in brass and steel, to design a limited edition bust of Queen Elizabeth in commemoration of the Queen’s 80th birthday bash. In 1999 Revelation was installed in Jack Pond, one of Chatsworth’s earliest ponds.

The four large metallic petals close and open with the movement of water, alternatively camouflaging and showing a golden globe at the sculpture’s center. Standing five meters high and five meters wide, the globe was made from steel and then painted with gold dust. This latest fountain is an exciting and interesting addition to the Gardens of Chatsworth, unique in that the motion of the flower petals is totally powered by water.

The One Cleaning Solution to NEVER Use On Your Wall fountains

In order to ensure that water fountains last a while, it is important to practice regular maintenance. A typical issue with fountains is that they tend to collect dirt and debris, so it is vital that you keep it free from this. Another factor is that water that is subjected to sunlight is susceptible to growing algae. To prevent this, take vinegar, hydrogen peroxide, or sea salt and add right into the water. Bleach can also be mixed into the water, but this is not the ideal option as it can sicken birds or other animals.

No more than three-four months should really go by without an extensive cleaning of a fountain. Prior to cleaning, all the water must be eliminated. Then use mild soap and a soft sponge to clean the innner part of the reservoir. If there is intricate artwork, you might need to use a toothbrush for those hard-to-reach areas. Make sure all the soap is properly cleaned off.

Various organisms and calcium deposits can get inside the pump, so it is advised to take it apart and clean it completely.

Letting it soak in vinegar for several hours first will make it alot easier to clean. Mineral or rain water, versus tap water, is ideal in order to eliminate any build-up of chemicals inside the pump.

Finally, be sure to have a quick look at your fountain daily and add water if you see that the level is low. If the water level falls below the pump’s intake level, it can hurt the pump and cause it to burn out - something you don't want to happen!

The Early Civilization: Outdoor Fountains

During archaeological excavations on the island of Crete, various varieties of channels have been found. In conjunction with supplying water, they dispersed water which accumulated from storms or waste material. Stone and terracotta were the ingredients of choice for these channels. Terracotta was selected for canals and pipelines, both rectangle-shaped and round.

These incorporated cone-like and U-shaped terracotta conduits that were distinctive to the Minoans. Terracotta piping were laid beneath the floors at Knossos Palace and used to circulate water. The piping also had other functions including amassing water and channeling it to a central location for storage. This called for the terracotta conduits to be capable of holding water without leaking. Underground Water Transportation: the hidden process for water circulation may have been chosen to give water to specific individuals or events. Quality Water Transportation: There is also evidence which suggests the piping being used to provide for water features independently from the local technique.

Fountains: A Must in any Japanese Landscapes

No Japanese garden is finished without a water feature. They tend to be put right at the entrance of Japanese temples and homes because they are thought to be representative of spiritual and physical cleansing.

It is uncommon to see extravagantly-designed Japanese fountains because the focus is supposed to be on the water itself.

Bamboo is a popular material to use for spouts and therefore often added into water fountains. The water moves through the bamboo spout and collects in the stone basin underneath. People generally make them seem weathered and worn, even when they are new. People want their fountain to seem as natural as possible, so they put plants, flowers, and stones around the fountain. Clearly this fountain is much more than merely a nice add-on.

An alternative is to buy a stone fountain, set it on a bed of rock, and place live bamboo and pretty stones around it. In time, as moss progressively covers the stones, it becomes even more natural-looking.

More substantial water features can be created if there is enough open land. Lots of people add a koi pond or a little stream as a final touch.

However, water does not need to be an element in a Japanese water fountain. Other alternatives include stones, gravel, or sand to represent water. The impression of a creek with moving water can also be achieved by placing flat stones very closely together.


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