The Earliest Garden Water Features

Water fountains were originally practical in function, used to deliver water from canals or springs to towns and villages, providing the residents with clean water to drink, wash, and prepare food with. In the days before electric power, the spray of fountains was driven by gravity exclusively, often using an aqueduct or water source located far away in the nearby hills. Inspiring and spectacular, large water fountains have been built as monuments in nearly all societies. The contemporary fountains of today bear little resemblance to the first water fountains. a-561_art__96031.jpg A natural stone basin, crafted from rock, was the very first fountain, utilized for containing water for drinking and ceremonial functions. Stone basins are theorized to have been 1st utilized around 2000 BC. The force of gravity was the power source that controlled the oldest water fountains. Drinking water was supplied by public fountains, long before fountains became ornate public monuments, as beautiful as they are practical. The people of Rome began building ornate fountains in 6 BC, most of which were metallic or natural stone masks of creatures and mythological representations. The people of Rome had an intricate system of aqueducts that provided the water for the countless fountains that were located throughout the community.

Rome’s First Water Delivery Systems

With the manufacturing of the 1st raised aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, people who lived on the city’s foothills no longer had to be dependent strictly on naturally-occurring spring water for their requirements. When aqueducts or springs weren’t available, people living at raised elevations turned to water taken from underground or rainwater, which was made possible by wells and cisterns. Beginning in the sixteenth century, a brand new approach was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean segments to provide water to Pincian Hill. Pozzi, or manholes, were engineered at standard intervals along the aqueduct’s channel. During the some 9 years he owned the property, from 1543 to 1552, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi employed these manholes to take water from the channel in buckets, though they were originally established for the function of cleaning and maintaining the aqueduct. Apparently, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t sufficient to satisfy his needs. That is when he made a decision to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran beneath his property.

Water Elements: A Necessity in any Japanese Gardens

No Japanese garden is whole without a water feature. You will often see Japanese water fountains in the doorway of a temple or home due to the fact that they are thought to be symbolic of physical and spiritual cleansing. Since water is the most important element of any Japanese fountain, the design is generally simple.

Many people also get a water fountain that includes a bamboo spout.

The basin, which tends to be fashioned of stones, collects the water as it trickles down from the bamboo spout. People typically make them appear weathered and worn, even when they are new. People want their fountain to seem as natural as possible, so they put plants, flowers, and stones around the fountain. Clearly this fountain is much more than just a pretty add-on.

An alternate approach is to buy a stone fountain, set it on a bed of rock, and place live bamboo and pretty stones around it. In time, as moss gradually covers the stones, it starts to look even more natural-looking.

Anyone who has an extensive area to work with can, of course, out in a much larger water feature. Charming add-ons include a babbling brook or tiny pool with koi in it.

There are different options if you do not want to put water in your Japanese fountain. Good alternatives include stones, gravel, or sand to symbolize water. The semblance of a creek with moving water can also be achieved by putting flat stones very closely together.

The Origins Of Wall Fountains

The dramatic or decorative effect of a fountain is just one of the purposes it fulfills, in addition to supplying drinking water and adding a decorative touch to your property.

Originally, fountains only served a practical purpose. Cities, towns and villages made use of nearby aqueducts or springs to provide them with potable water as well as water where they could bathe or wash. Up to the late 19th century, water fountains had to be near an aqueduct or reservoir and higher than the fountain so that gravity could make the water flow down or shoot high into the air. Fountains were not only used as a water source for drinking water, but also to adorn homes and celebrate the designer who created it.

Roman fountains usually depicted imagery of animals or heroes made of metal or stone masks. Muslims and Moorish garden designers of the Middle Ages included fountains to re-create smaller models of the gardens of paradise. To demonstrate his prominence over nature, French King Louis XIV included fountains in the Garden of Versailles. Seventeen and 18 century Popes sought to extol their positions by adding decorative baroque-style fountains at the point where restored Roman aqueducts arrived into the city.

Indoor plumbing became the main source of water by the end of the 19th century thereby limiting urban fountains to mere decorative elements. Impressive water effects and recycled water were made possible by replacing the power of gravity with mechanical pumps.

Embellishing city parks, honoring people or events and entertaining, are some of the purposes of modern-day fountains.

Water Fountains: The Minoan Civilization

Various different kinds of conduits have been unveiled through archaeological digs on the island of Crete, the cradle of Minoan civilization. They were used for water supply as well as removal of storm water and wastewater. The principle materials utilized were stone or terracotta. Terracotta was utilized for channels and pipes, both rectangle-shaped and circular. There are two examples of Minoan terracotta conduits, those with a shortened cone form and a U-shape that have not been seen in any culture since that time. Terracotta water lines were put down beneath the floors at Knossos Palace and utilized to circulate water. The water pipes also had other functions such as amassing water and directing it to a central location for storage. Thus, these conduits had to be effective to: Subterranean Water Transportation: It’s not quite understood why the Minoans required to transfer water without it being enjoyed. Quality Water Transportation: The conduits could also have been utilized to haul water to fountains that were separate from the city’s regular system.

The Story of the Beautiful Cascade Fountain at the Garden of Chatsworth

At the back of Chatsworth House, the Cascade garden fountain creates a spectacular focal point to the landscape.

For 200 yards towards the house is a series of twenty-four irregularly spaced stone steps stretching all the way down the hillside. Completely gravity fed, the Cascade too is dependent on a 17th century French design. This water fountain has remained the same after being Created for the first Duke of Devonshire in 1696. The Cascade House rests at the top of the fountain where water spills downward. A little structure, the home is adorned on the outside with marine creatures in bas-relief. Just before continuing down the Cascade, on special occasions water pressure to the Cascade can easily be boosted, causing the Cascade House to become part of the Cascade spectacle, as water runs through channel on its roof and originating from the mouths of its carved sea creatures. Creating a wonderful and comforting complement to a walk through the landscape, the minor contrast in measurement of every single step indicates that the sound of the water plummeting downward differs as it falls along the Cascades. In 2004, Chatsworth's Cascade, was named England's best water feature.

Archaic Greek Artwork: Garden Statuary

The Archaic Greeks developed the very first freestanding statuary, an awesome achievement as most sculptures up until then had been reliefs cut into walls and pillars.

Most of these freestanding sculptures were what is known as kouros figures, statues of young, attractive male or female (kore) Greeks. The kouroi were believed by the Greeks to typify beauty and were sculpted with one foot leading and an uncompromising rigidity to their forward-facing poses; the male statues were always strapping, sinewy, and nude. In around 650 BC, the varieties of the kouroi became life-sized. The Archaic period was an incredible time of change for the Greeks as they grew into new modes of government, formed unique expressions of art, and attained knowledge of the people and cultures outside of Greece. But in spite of the conflicts, the Greek civilization went on to progress, unabated.


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